Gerardus Mercator’s first map
The first map that the great cartographer published himself (at age 25) was a map of Palestine, in 1537: Terra Sanctae descriptio ad utriusque testamente intelligentiam (“A description of the Holy Land for understanding both testaments”). It aimed to help people in their Bible studies, a Protestant notion that may have been part of what aroused the suspicions of the authorities and caused his seven months prison sentence. Above a (low resolution) photograph of a map facsimile held at the Istituto Geografico Militare in Firenze, Italy, from an original at the Communal Library of Perugia, Italy.
Below that a much better map produced later on, by Mercator and another renowned Dutch cartographer, Jodocus Hondius. Terra Sancta que in Terra Promissionis ol: Palestina. For sale in antique map shops. Note “Hierusalem” at 32 N, 69 E… they use funny longitudes.
Note that in the first map, West is up; in the second, East is up. At the time the area was part of the Ottoman empire.